Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin

Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin is a Russian politician and former intelligence officer who is the president of Russia, a position he has filled since 2012, and previously from 2000 until 2008. He was also the prime minister from 1999 to 2000, and again from 2008 to 2012. Putin is the second-longest current serving European president after Alexander Lukashenko of Belarus.

Putin was born 7 October 1952 in Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg) and studied law at Leningrad State University, graduating in 1975. He worked as a KGB foreign intelligence officer for 16 years, rising to the rank of lieutenant colonel, before resigning in 1991 to begin a political career in Saint Petersburg. He moved to Moscow in 1996 to join the administration of president Boris Yeltsin. He briefly served as director of the Federal Security Service (FSB) and secretary of the Security Council, before being appointed as prime minister in August 1999.

After the resignation of Yeltsin, Putin became acting president, and less than four months later was elected outright to his first term as president and was reelected in 2004. As he was then constitutionally limited to two consecutive terms as president, Putin served as prime minister again from 2008 to 2012 under Dmitry Medvedev, and returned to the presidency in 2012 in an election marred by allegations of fraud and protests; he was reelected again in 2018. In April 2021, following a referendum, he signed into law constitutional amendments including one that would allow him to run for reelection twice more, potentially extending his presidency to 2036.

During Putin’s first tenure as president, the Russian economy grew for eight consecutive years, with GDP measured by purchasing power increasing by 72%; Russian self-assessed life satisfaction rose significantly. The growth was a result of a fivefold increase in the price of oil and gas, which constitute the majority of Russian exports, recovery from the post-Communist depression and financial crisis following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, a rise in foreign investment, and prudent economic and fiscal policies.

Putin also led Russia to victory in the Second Chechen War. Serving as prime minister under Medvedev, he oversaw large-scale military reform and police reform, as well as Russia’s victory in the Russo-Georgian War. During his third term as president, falling oil prices coupled with international sanctions imposed at the beginning of 2014 after Russia launched a military intervention in Ukraine and annexed Crimea led to GDP shrinking by 3.7% in 2015.

During his fourth term as president, his government responded to the COVID-19 pandemic. Putin also presided over a military buildup on the border of Ukraine from 2021 to February 2022, when he ordered a full-scale invasion of Ukraine, leading to international condemnation and further sanctions being imposed against Russia, including against Putin himself, causing a financial crisis. Other developments under Putin have included the construction of oil and gas pipelines, the restoration of the satellite navigation system GLONASS, and the building of infrastructure for international events such as the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi and the 2018 FIFA World Cup.

Under Putin’s leadership, Russia has experienced democratic backsliding and shifted to authoritarianism. Putin’s rule has been characterised by endemic corruption, the jailing and repression of political opponents, the intimidation and suppression of media freedom in Russia, and a lack of free and fair elections. Putin’s Russia has scored poorly on Transparency International‘s Corruption Perceptions Index, the Economist Intelligence Unit‘s Democracy Index, and Freedom House‘s Freedom in the World index.

Peter Eleftherios Baker (born July 2, 1967) is an American journalist and author. He is the chief White House correspondent for The New York Times and a political analyst for MSNBC, and was previously a reporter for The Washington Post for 20 years. Baker has covered five presidents: Bill ClintonGeorge W. BushBarack ObamaDonald Trump, and currently Joe Biden.

US President Bill Clinton said he hung up after congratulating Vladimir Putin on becoming acting Russian president in 1999 “thinking he was tough enough to hold Russia together”. Clinton, who had a warm rapport with Putin’s mentor Boris Yeltsin, found him cold but wrote in his memoirs that “Yeltsin had picked a successor who had the skills and capacity … to manage Russia’s turbulent political and economic life better than (the ailing) Yeltsin now could”.

When Russia invaded Georgia in 2008 Bush confronted Putin directly at the Beijing Olympics, he wrote in his memoirs. He told him he had warned him that the Georgian president was hot-blooded. “I’m hot-blooded too,” Putin replied. “No, Vladimir,” Bush retorted. “You’re cold-blooded.”

Obama didn’t try to hide his suspicion of the Russian leader. “I don’t have a bad personal relationship with Putin,” he told reporters in 2013.

posted by gandatmadi46@yahoo.com

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